[5] Claiming a heritage among the Jews from as early as the Babylonian captivity provides credibility for a pro-Roman and Hellenized Herod as a King over the Jews, for they were highly contemptuous of him. Due to his loyalty to Rome and reliability as a statesman, he was placed in charge of Judea, with responsibilities and privileges that included mediating civil disturbance and tax collecting. Josephus also describes the beheading o… Herod quickly set about ridding Galilee of what his court historian calls "robbers," although they may also have been people resisting Roman rule. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. Josephus presents two opposing reasons, one which would help secure Hyrcanus against the rising threat of Herod,[32] and the other being his desire to quickly dispose of Hyrcanus and take power himself. Herod Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, is not mentioned in the New Testament, but ten of his descendants played major roles in the lives of Jesusand of the … Per Africanus, Antipater was a hierodule of Apollo at a temple in Ashkelon where his father served as priest. Note that Herod the Great had a father and a grand-father by the name of “ Antipater”. [14] Indeed, it is clear in the various forms of assistance that Antipater provides to both Hyrcanus II, brother of Aristobulus, and the Romans, that he possessed great resources, and brilliant military and political capabilities.[15]. Antipas was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch (“ruler of a quarter”) and is referred to as both “Herod the Tetrarch” and “King Herod” in the New Testament although he never held the title of king. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. She was the daughter of Antigonus the Hasmonean, the last Hasmonean king who also served as high priest. [12] Antipater also had a brother named Phalion, who was killed in battle against Aristobulus at Papyron. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. His father Herod the Great divided his large kingdom into four parts and bequeathed them to his sons, an action confirmed by the Roman senate. This account serves two purposes; when the Persian King Cyrus sent the captives in Babylon back to Judea, it is likely that some chose to settle elsewhere. ; executed 4 B.C. Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant. Salome, Herod, Pheroras, and two other brothers were the children of Antipater I, who was of Idumean descent. However, in 5 BC Antipater was brought before Publius Quinctilius Varus, then Roman governor of Syria, charged with the intended murder of his father Herod. In fact, Antipater was a rival to the throne. Antipater’s father, and many other Idumeans, had been forcibly converted to Judaism under the regime of the Hasmonean High Priest John Hyrcanus I. Josephus states that Antipater I belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. The family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so that its members were liable to the reproach of being half-Jews or even foreigners. He was poisoned in 43 B.C. Antipas ruled from Herod the Great’s death in either 4BC or 1 BC 1 until he was deposed by Caligula in AD 39. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Antípatros; c. 46 – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. Herod was born in southern Palestine. When Julius Caesar and Pompey went to battle in Egypt, Pompey was killed, so Antipater in 47 BCE shifted his allegiance to Caesar, and indeed ingratiated himself with Caesar. [27] He established order by tempering civil disturbances in Judea and threatening to become a "severe master instead of a gentle governor" should the people grow seditious and unruly. , when Roman Emperor Julius Caesar (100—44 B.C.E. ) However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. Antipater was of the same cruel disposition as his father. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. One aristocrat tasked with collecting tribute was Malichus, who disdained Antipater and enraged Cassius by not collecting with haste. His activities eventually resulted in complaints raised with the Sanhedrin. More information about Herod the Great can be found in Matthew 2:1-22 and Luke 1:5. Schiffman, Lawrence H., "Judea Under Roman Rule", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_the_Idumaean&oldid=994440011, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He acquired great influence because of his father's position. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 19:03. Antipater was the father of King Herod the Great. [17] After Hyrcanus stepped down, Antipater persuaded him to contend against his brother for his rightful position, and even convinced the unsuspecting and reluctant Hyrcanus that his younger brother intended to kill him. Herod the Great After the death of his father Antipater, Herod the Great (still governor of Galilee) established a close relationship with Mark Antony—one of the renowned ringleaders of Julius Caesar’s assassination. "The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity." [29] Cassius demanded seven hundred talents out of Judea, so Antipater split the cost between his two sons. Josephus records that she was at the palace with Doris, Antipater's mother, in support of her husband during his trial before Varus in 5 BC. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Herod was born of this union in 73 BCE. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. The story starts with Antipater, the father of Herod. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in the government at Rome. As such, in a polemic against Herod to discredit him in the eyes of the Romans as unfit to become king of the Jews, Antigonus the Hasmonean is quoted by Josephus as referring to Herod as "no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. Soon after Hyrcanus succeeded his widowed mother as ruler and took the office of the high priest, he was immediately attacked by his brother and surrendered. Born about 73 BCE, Herod’s wealthy father Antipater served the Hasmonean kings of Judaea and befriended Julius Caesar, who made Antipater a Roman citizen. Because he trusted Herod, Antony set things in motion to install Herod in Judea in place of its current ruler, Antigonus. [11] Their marriage helped bring about a close friendship between him and King Aretas, called by Josephus "Aretas the Arabian", to whom Cypros was related. Antipater's schemes came to nothing, however, for one of the last acts of Herod's life was an order to execute Antipater, who had instigated the murder of his half brothers and conspired to poison his father. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favor of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. Antipater II or Antipas ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 B.C.E. Antipater I the Idumaean[a] (born 113 or 114 BCE,[1] died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. Herod the Great's Story . Antipater was from Edom. Herod. He flourished in the days of Pompey and Julius Caesar, was a firm friend of the Romans, and about the year 47 B.C. Antipater's life, from the day of his mother's return to favor and of his own recall to the palace of Jerusalem, was one continuous endeavor to supplant in the favor of his father all the other members of the Herodian family, and finally, when this object was well-nigh achieved, to gain possession, through parricide, of the throne of Judea. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the governors of Jerusalem and Galilee, respectively. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Arab Nabataean kingdom. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. Josephus states that Antipater i belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. Early Church Fathers often portrayed Herod polemically, and as such, their accounts of his familial origin reflected poetic license in place of historical accuracy. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40 B.C. [25] This amity allowed the Jews a special degree of protection and freedom to govern themselves and enjoy Rome's good will. [2] Josephus writes that he was a man of great authority among the Idumeans, both wealthy and born into a dignified family. [19], Although Pompey and his lieutenant Scaurus initially ruled in Aristobulus’ favor when the brothers brought their case forward, on the third intervention Pompey ordered the brothers to wait. Once the sentence had approval from Augustus in 4 BC, Antipater was then executed, and Archelaus (from the marriage with Malthace) was made heir in his father's will as king over Herod's entire kingdom (with Antipas and Philip as Tetrarchs over certain territories). He defended himself with a history of unfailing loyalty to the Romans. According to Graves, a pregnant Mary is compelled to pretend to marry an old, pious carpenter, Joseph, to protect herself and the unborn Jesus. Richardson, Peter (1996). Aristobulus (son of Mariamne the Queen) left these infants when he was slain by his father…but when they were arrived at the age of puberty, this Herod, (the eldest son), married Mariamne, the daughter of Olympias, who was the daughter of Herod the king, and of Joseph the son of Joseph who was brother to Herod the king, and had by her a son, Aristobulus…Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.V.4 a half Jew".[6]. He would doubtless have been every bit as much of a threat to the Lord as his evil sire, had he succeeded his wicked father to the throne. The two men had such a relationship that Antipater entrusted his children to his friend when he went to war with the Hasmonean Aristobulus II. First was his niece Mariamne III, daughter of Aristobulus IV. Antipater (ca. According to this writer, Idumean robbers attacked Ascalon, and plundered a shrine of Apollo, taking with them the son of the temple-attendant Herod, because he was too poor to redeem his son Antipater. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favour of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. Africanus ascribes Antipater's Idumaean character to a raid by the people during which Antipater was kidnapped, and following his father's failure to pay ransom, he was taken down to Idumaea proper where he was raised in the teachings of Judaism. Herod the Great's Story . "[1], We know two of Antipater's wives through the writings of Josephus. The father of Antipater who went as ... /j/jason.htm - 12k. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. Herod III Antipater (born prior to 20BC; 4BC – 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, and was the son of Herod I the Great (c. 4 BC/1AD). Together they attacked Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and there was a great upheaval that drew the attention of the Roman magistrate Pompey assigned to the eastern Mediterranean province. This wife of Antipater was also a first cousin of Mariamne I, renowned royal wife of Herod the Great. At the time of Mariamne's death, Herod had nine other … Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998, p.109. How During Antipater's Abode at Rome, Herod Brought Alexander and ..... CHAPTER 4. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, as Judah became known to the Romans, with the right to collect taxes. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater produced the Herodian dynasty; he paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who married the Hasmonean princess Mariamne,[35] endeared himself to Rome, and usurped the Judean throne to become king of Judea under Roman influence. "The Dusk of Judea and the Dawn of a New Dynasty." [30] However, Antipater saved Malichus from death by expending one hundred talents of his own and placating Cassius’ anger. While it's uncertain precisely where Herod was born, it's known that his father, Antipater (died 43 B.C. [18] He arranged for Hyrcanus to come under the protection of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. At that time Jerusalem was occupied by Parthian troops, fighting on behalf of the anti-Roman Jews. Herod Antipater, better known as Antipas, was granted the right to rule Galilee and Perea. A legitimate dispersion such as this would shroud the fact that Herod's ancestry is undocumented in the meticulous records of returned Jewish families. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas[b] and had formerly held that name.[2]. Neither of these genealogies are accepted by scholars. However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. Antipater was killed by his father five days before Herod's own death according to Josephus. [4] Herod and his father … He had served as governor of Edom during the reign of King Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah during the Hasmonean dynasty. A native of Edom, southeast of Judah between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which under the Romans came to be known as Idumaea, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judah in the name of Roman Republic. Some time later, we read of the infamous event. Hyrcanus threatened that any Idumaean who wished to maintain their land would need to be circumcised and enter into the traditions of the Jews. Herod had a son whose name was Antipater. [7], Instead Josephus explains that Antipater's family converted to Judaism during the forced conversions by the Sadducee-influenced Hasmonean leader John Hyrcanus (r. 134-104 BCE). If you enjoyed our bible study, we would love to hear from you, you can use our contact page for any comments or suggestions. Antipater laid the foundation for Herod's ascension to the throne of Judea partly through his activities in the court of the Hasmoneans, the heirs of the Maccabees, who were the hereditary leaders of the Jews, and partly by currying favor with the Romans, who were growing more involved and dominant over the region at this time. Salome (65 BCE–10 CE) was the younger sister of Herod (b. After the guilty verdict, Antipater's position as exclusive successor was removed and granted to Herod Antipas. [33] He devised multiple assassination attempts which Antipater evaded, but successfully bribed one of Hyrcanus’ cup-bearers to poison and kill Antipater.[34]. Antipater had great influence in Israel and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey the Great. [31], Although Antipater saved Malichus' life a second time from a different ruler, Malichus continued to despise Antipater and seek his murder. Herod’s Father, Antipater laid the foundations for his Son’s future. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Herod's attempt to humiliate Alexander by restoring to honor Antipater, an older son by another wife, resulted disastrously. Personal details. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern…. ς Ἀντίπατρος, HērÇ­dēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament, although he never held the title of king. Antipater in Jewish Legend. Herod Antipas is arguably most famous for beheading John the Baptist. His father, Antipater, was an Edomite (a Semitic people, identified by some scholars as Arab, who converted to Judaism in the 2nd century bce ). Unlike Graves, however, Raymond specifies that Mary was actually the unnamed daughter of Antigonus who would later become Antipater's wife. 74 BCE). His father, Antipater, was an Edomite (a Semitic people, identified by some scholars as Arab, who converted to Judaism in the 2nd century bce ). He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. Hayes, John H., and Sara R. Mandell (1998). "Cypros" redirects here. How During Antipater's Abode At Rome, Herod Brought Alexander And Aristobulus Before Caesar And Accused Them. [3] They demonstrate the tensions that existed between the Jewish people and the powerful Edomites who appear at this time. was appointed procurator of Judea. They had four sons: Phasael, Herod, Joseph, and Pheroas, and a daughter, Salome, one of several Salomes among the Herodians. Antipater II (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. "Herod: king of the Jews and friend of the Romans." He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus (Herod's sons by Mariamne) rose in the royal succession in 12 BC, and even became exclusive successor to the throne after their execution in 7 BC (with Herod II in second place). [21] Antipater recognized Rome's growing dominance in the region and exploited it to his advantage. [23], Later when accused by Aristobulus’ son, Antigonus, who returned from Roman bondage to contest for power, Antipater made a great scene of his scars from fighting for Caesar's life in Egypt. ANTIPATER II or ANTIPASANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 b.c.e. Hyrcanus agreed to retire from public life. Gissin, Mikhail (2014). In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. A fragment of a legend concerning the life of Antipater has, however, been preserved by Julius Africanus. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. Aristobulus impatiently provoked a political offense that brought Pompey to appoint Hyrcanus the ethnarch of Judea. Antipater II (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. [16] Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to fear that King Aristobulus would not retain him in this position. The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role In Society and Eclipse. by one whose life he had twice saved. Though historians understand that Antipater's family converted to Judaism in the second century BCE, different stories had circulated in the wake of his sons coming to power. ANTIPATER (abridged form, Antipas): Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. 24. [8] Josephus acknowledges Herod as being "by birth a Jew" and Antipater as being "of the same people" with the Jews. While Caesar was besieged in Alexandria, Antipater rescued him with three thousand men and the aid of numerous nearby friends. Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant. Concerning Antipater's execution following on the heel of Herod's executions a couple of years before of his sons Alexander and Aristobulus, it would be recounted in the compendium Saturnalia (compiled by Macrobius) that Augustus remarked "It is better to be Herod's pig than his son. Eldest son of Herod the Great and of the Idumean Doris, who soon after Antipater's birth was discarded by her husband; born about 38 B.C. Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. 46 BC – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. According to Sextus Julius Africanus, Antipater's father was named Herod, not Antipas, Epiphanius of Salamis furthered this claim by writing Antipas was in fact the father of this Herod. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus(Herod's sons by Mariamne) ro… However, in 5 BC Antipater was brought before Publius Quinctilius Varus, then Roman governor of Syria, charged with the intended murder of his father Herod.Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. 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